Archive for February, 2012

Abrasion Chondroplasty

Feb 18 2012 Published by under A

Abrasion Chondroplasty: This is the name of surgery for smoothing and shaving cartilage off the knee. It is normally done as day surgery procedure in those individuals who have surfaces of the bones and knee cap that has been worn or damaged. A simple chondroblasts is used for smoothing where needed by using hand instruments that are small; the loose remains of cartilage are removed. Then the edges and margins may be leveled smoothly removing any loose as well as any unusable fragments of the surface using a shaver that is mechanized. This is a rotatory device small in diameter and motorized and it is introduced into the knee alongside the arthroscopy. Its function is to get rid of any inadequate fronds of front surface which may be the cause of symptoms.

An Abrasion Chondroplasty is done when the front surface has damage that is extensive and where there is exposure of the bone that is underlying. This is treated with a shallow scrape of the surface of the bone by a rotatory 4.5 mm burr. This makes a surface that over the next 6 week will forms on the surface a layer of “scar tissue” that is ancillary for the first layer of articular cartilage. This method is used in very small areas that are damaged but has normally been discovered to not be useful in those areas or those defects that are large. A 6 weeks period of crutch use is needed for the healing and recovery of the surface of this joint. The Abrasion Chondroplasty has mainly been substituted with the “micro-fracture technique”. This method pierces the bone that is exposed with a drill. This causes bleeding of the bone that is underlying but conserves the assembly of the surface of the bone. Remember a period of 6 weeks on crutches is needed to allow for correct healing of the defect following surgery.

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Shattered Cartilage

Feb 11 2012 Published by under Perfect

Shattered Cartilage is cartilage that can break up into several fragments especially in the ear when individuals are getting ears pierced in the upper edge or rim of the ear. This is the area that is made up of cartilage. In fact the majority of the literature is about the problems that can develop with piercing in this area and this is the area that is mostly made out of cartilage.

Shattering of the cartilage in the ear means breaking into very small pieces and it doesn’t happen often but it can and messes up the entire way your ear looks. Cartilage is hard and if too much pressure is applied this increases the risk. So it is advised that ear guns not be used in this area as there is not only the risk of a fracture of the cartilage but also a greater risk of infections. There could be bumps developing in the cartilage close to the piercing. It is best to be pierced using a needle.

There is one other area where shattered cartilage can occur and this is in the knee area. Often a small bit of cartilage will soften and breaks away from a bone’s end, causing long-term knee pain, swelling, and incapacity to lengthen the leg, popping and catching sensations with movement of the knee. Treatment may consist of resting the knee, wearing a cast or in some cases surgery to remove the fragments of cartilage.

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Pain Under Left Rib

Feb 09 2012 Published by under Uncategorized

Pain Under Left Rib: There are numerous causes for pain under the ribs on the left side. These may be caused by injuries, some condition underlying, or severe illnesses. The below are some of the more usual reasons for pain in the left area of the rib cage.

Acid reflux or heartburn which is common reasons for pain of the ribs on the left side. Acid reflux might be generated as a consequence of over-eating of foods or drinks that are acidic and usually cause indigestion. This pain is sharp and often mistaken as chest pain.

Spleen rupture or irritation may also cause pain and discomfort under the rib cage on the left. Pain in the shoulder on the left is an additional signs of a ruptured or damaged spleen.

Colon area having gas known as “splenic-flexure syndrome” is extreme quantities of gas confined in the colon and can create pain under the ribcage. Colon gas may generate pain in the upper abdomen on the left or the chest in the lower left.

Costochondritis is a disorder resulting from a cartilage infection that bonds the ribs with the breastbone. This may be caused by a strong impact of the shoulder and rib cage area or caused by an infection that is viral.

Broken ribs are injuries in the left rib cage causing an explosive area of pain in left side under the ribs, particularly when breathing deeply.

Pneumothorax occurs when there is collapse of the lungs due to a rupture in the lung membrane so that the air leaks out into the cavity between the rib cage and the lungs creating pain under the rib areas.

Stomach ulcers can cause a pain under the rib cage on the left and denote ulcers in the stomach. This causes pain that moves up to the shoulder blade area from the rib cage region.

Irritable-bowel syndrome is a disorder that causes abdominal pain, cramps and bloating. It also upsets normal movements of the bowel by causing constipation or diarrhea dependent on the person affected.

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Double Toenail

Feb 08 2012 Published by under D

Double Toenails is a rare condition where an individual is born with a primary nail on their toe as well as a secondary nail located beside or overlapping the primary nail.

This can also be caused by a medical condition where the toenails will split into layers with all the layers continuing to grow.

Toe nails that appear to have two toenails growing – exactly one on top of the other is referred to as “double toenails”. If this is occurring on any of your toenails there is at least one way to proceed.

You could see a podiatrist which is a doctor with a specialty in foot problems. Even if you are not having any problems with your double toenails currently, it would be sensible to obtain information on this detailed disorder and any underlying causes so as to avert any further infections from emerging. It is probably best to do this before the situation becomes difficult to clean and trim/cut the toenails.

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Lump Under Chin

Feb 08 2012 Published by under Uncategorized

Lump Under Chin: A lump of the skin is an atypical puffiness gotten in a precise space beneath the skin. These are outbreaks that develop as flat bumpy arrangements and usually heal minus any management. Enlarged lumps under the chin can also be the outcome of an injury.

A lump beneath the chin that isn’t leaving may progress into something that is quite bothersome and there are many options for management. But, the treatment should not be done without defining the root cause.

Here are some of the causes:

A sore lump under the chin may mean the expansion of a sebaceous cyst. This is a bump that is small and develops just underneath the skin. They are also indicated as a cyst of epidermis, it is a pea-sized bump below the chin and comprises oily material identified as sebum.

A lump under the chin that can also be painful can happen as a consequence of hair follicles that are inflamed. A hair follicle is a small pocket like structure, just underneath the skin thru which a hair strand arises and these follicles can become clogged and infected.

Sore lumps under the chin that do not react to any customary management may indicate malignancy. This type of lump may show conflict to antibiotics and other medications, as well as bleeds easily. The lump is regularly painless, is hard and often changes shape and size.

A lump that is very hard under the chin may also indicate warts. These are growths that result from viral infections.

There is still one more type of skin growth that can cause lumps under the chin that are small. Although everybody has moles on the body that are black spots, they frequently go unseen due to their small size. In some cases, moles may be atypically large and appear as black or brown colored lumps.

An abscess may also yield tender lumps under the chin. A painful bump under the chin because of abscess – boils – means a bacterial contagion has assailed the affected area. The bacterium causes the development of pus in the abscess.

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Calcification

Feb 04 2012 Published by under C

Calcification is the procedure where salts of calcium accumulate in the tissues that are soft, initiating it to solidify. Calcifications might be categorized on if there is mineral balance or not and the sites of the calcification.

Calcifications are an outcome which may be seen on mammograms. These are slight fragments of calcium may be seem within the tissue that is soft of the breast. Calcifications are not cancer of the breast. At times calcifications can be a sign of a condition that is precancerous. On mammograms, they look like white dots.

Some individuals may experience calcification symptoms that may not or may be linked with a condition involving mineral metabolism. On occasion, any of these following symptoms may be severe: pain in the bone; bone spurs; breast lump or mass; increased bone fractures; impaired growth; muscle cramping or weakness; new deformities such as spine curvature or leg bowing; tartar on the teeth; and weakness that is progressive.

Calcifications may be instigated by raised intensities of calcium in the blood or by inflammation, known as hypercalcemia. Calcification may be a portion of a typical response to healing for injuries of the musculoskeletal system. Calcifications are frequently found in arteries affected by arteriosclerosis – reinforcing or hardening of the arteries – malignant breast processes and in benign, at sites of bone injury or cartilage and frequently within cancers.

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Echinocyte

Feb 03 2012 Published by under E

Echinocytes are actually blood components. They are red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes which have undergone the process called crenation. Crenation is the process wherein erythrocytes grow sharp or blunt spicules in the circumference of the RBCs primarily due to the lipid bilayer outer leaflet enlargement. These spicules usually have the same sizes and appear to be evenly distanced from each other. These features distinguish them from acanthocytes which are irregularly-shaped and unevenly spaced.

A number of conditions may have lead to the proliferation of echinocytes. Let us discuss some of the possible causes of echinocytosis. The first one is believed to be due to the aging process of the RBCs. When RBCs are being placed in a tube with excessive EDTA concentrations, echinocytes are also likely to increase in number. Generally, echinocytosis can be accounted from RBC dehydration, decreased ATP and increased pH.

There are also drugs that lead to echinocytosis such as furosemide, phenylbutazone, salicylates and those that are used as chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin. Electrolyte imbalance may as well be pointed out as one of the causes of echinocyte formation. When intracellular potassium has been depleted, the red blood cells get dehydrated. Abnormally low levels of sodium would also lead to the same condition. Kidney, liver and other metabolic disorders can also be blamed for echinocytosis. This condition, however, may be reversed.

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