Archive for January, 2012

Calcified Placenta

Jan 07 2012 Published by under C

Calcified Placenta: The placenta plays an essential role during pregnancy. It is where the developing fetus attaches with the uterus. The placenta assumes a cauliflower shape and it’s where you can find plenty of blood vessels necessary for the exchange of nutrients between the baby and the mother. The exchange of oxygen and other essential nutrients and as well as waste products all take place in the placenta. The fetus is attached to the placenta via the umbilical cord. The placenta would then be delivered moments after the delivery of the conceptus. This is also otherwise referred to as afterbirth.

There are conditions which can affect the placenta such as placenta calcification. This can be defined as the deposition of calcium on the placenta. The deposition of calcium leads to the blockage of some important blood vessels. At times, this would also cause clots in the placenta coming from the maternal blood. Placenta calcification would oftentimes indicate aging and this normally occurs when the pregnancy reaches its full term and is about to terminate. The calcium deposition would also sometimes replace certain portions of the placenta with fibrous tissue. There’s also a huge tendency that the placenta would die due to the presence of calcium deposits. Nevertheless, it was speculated that despite the calcification of the placenta, it still retains its vital functions and has no detrimental effects to the growing fetus.

The primary culprit of placenta calcification is smoking. This makes the placenta age sooner than it should be. Thus, pregnant women who are suspected to have calcified placenta should frequently visit their doctor so as to ensure that the baby amply nourished.

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Bulging Eardrum

Jan 07 2012 Published by under B

Bulging Eardrum: There may be several circumstances which would lead to a bulging eardrum. The anatomy of the ears alone makes itself predisposed to suffer from this condition. You may wonder how your eardrum tends to bulge so easily. Before we tackle on the pathology, it is best if we first discuss briefly on its anatomy. Some of us suffer from a bulging eardrum owing to the fact that there’s only a short distance between the back of the throat, the sinus tract and the ears.

Aside from that, ear infection can also be considered another culprit for a bulging eardrum. When there’s an ongoing infection within the ear canal, this gets clogged with pus and other foreign bodies causing it to bulge.

Bulging eardrum is also another major concern for regular air travelers. The eardrum easily bulges due to barotraumas which takes place when you travel by air especially when you have colds and other ear infections. How does barotrauma cause a bulging eardrum? This takes place when there’s an unequal pressure between the air inside the ear and the air in the surrounding. Barotrauma specifically damages the tissues in the ears.

Pain is instantly felt when one has bulging eardrum related to the unequal air pressure. There are ways, however, that you can observe to avoid suffering from this condition. You may choose to use decongestants to relieve the clogging. As with air travelers, they may chew gums or suck some candies while flying. Also, you need to avoid sleeping especially when the plane is about to touchdown.

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Conjunctival Suffusion

Jan 05 2012 Published by under C

Conjunctival Suffusion: This is a finding that is ocular and is an early symptom in the infectious disease Leptospira interrogans. This early symptom is categorized by extreme redness of the conjunctiva that looks like conjunctivitis but it does not include inflammatory fluid that is usually seen with this infection.

L. interrogans is a class of Leptospira, which is aerobe and is a spirochete with and is a bacterium with periplasmic flagellum. The two significant pathogens within this species that are infectious include: Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola. These both exist in water that is alkaline, soil that is alkaline and may survive under these alkaline conditions for 3 months or even longer. They can also be found in urine.

Leptospirosis has just recently been documented as an infectious disease that is re-emerging and infects animals as well as humans. It has the probability of becoming even more prevalent with the advent of global warming. It is disseminated globally except for some polar regions – but is most often found in the tropics.

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Viral Myalgia

Jan 04 2012 Published by under V

Viral Myalgia: Myalgia simply means “muscle pain”. It is a symptom of a large number of diseases. But, it is mainly caused by injury, overstretching or overuse of muscle or its group. If myalgia happens without a history of trauma then a viral infection could be a probable cause and this is called Viral Myalgia.

There are many symptoms of any myalgia – especially viral myalgia. The most prominent is pain in the muscle that is affected and almost any muscle group can be involved. Viral myalgia involving the chest or heart muscle can cause pains in the chest as well as an irregular heartbeat or a rapid heartbeat. If the muscles of the respiratory system are involved – that too can cause chest pain, or problems with breathing. Other common symptoms of viral myalgia include burning skin, numbness or tingling sensation in the arms, face, legs or trunk.

Common cause of myalgia is usually stress or tension in the affected muscle developing as a result of the virus. The individual with viral myalgia often overuse their muscles. Myalgia is a symptom of a large number of diseases and disorders with a large number of them being caused by viruses.

Viruses that may cause viral myalgia include HIV, Epstein-Barr, influenza as well as diseases of the connective tissues which include autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, fibromyalgia and polymyalgia. Myalgia may be linked with the muscle movements that are involuntary caused by central nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as spinal cord injuries.

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Enterogastric Reflex

Jan 03 2012 Published by under E

Enterogastric Reflex: This reflex is 1 of 3 reflexes extrinsic of the digestive tract. This reflex is encouraged by the prevalence of duodenum acid with a pH level of 3-4 or in the stomach at a pH level of 1.5. With stimulus of this reflex, gastrin developed by the G-cells and released in the stomach antrum is shut off. This then prevents gastric motility as well as discharge of gastric acid. Besides the enterogastric reflex, the other 2 of the digestive tract reflexes include the colonoileal reflex and the gastrocolic reflex. The enterogastric reflex activation therefore, causes decrease in motility.

Features for emptying inhibitory are duodenal distension, duodenal acidic pH, sympathetic stimulation, duodenal hypertonicity, and intense pain.

Features for emptying stimulatory are parasympathetic stimulation, increased fluidity and volume of gastric contents.

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Visceral Reflex

Jan 03 2012 Published by under Perfect

Visceral Reflex: These are reflexes that are monitored and mediated by autonomic nerves and initiated in the viscera. These reflexes are muscular response to stimulation of a nerve-receptor organ in a visceral organ. Visceral organs include internal organs of the body, especially those within the chest such as the heart and lungs, as well as the organs in the abdomen such as the liver, intestines, or pancreas. These reflexes are autonomic meaning that it involves the response from an organ such as the peristaltic contractions of the smooth muscle of the intestines that is not consciously controlled.

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Facet Tropism

Jan 01 2012 Published by under F

Facet Tropism: This is a disease of the back that develops when the angle of the facet joints in the vertebrae face a direction that is different than normal. Rather than them going parallel to the feet, they instead are angled out – as if the feet were pointing out. This creates movement that is abnormal and the tear and wear on these joints causes pain in the back.

The facet joints are small joints in a pair towards the back of the vertebra that guides motion of the vertebra.

This condition is a fairly common finding on x-rays. Adjustments by a chiropractor can help along with some precise exercises that keep these muscles and joints moving in a fluid like manner. Weight is an issue that places a significant part in this as well.

There is also the possibility that facet joint arthritis will develop which is common when you have any joints that suffer from wear and tear problems. This is a degenerative process going on in these joints or discs in the back that can worsen as one gets older and cause problems. At this point your physician will need a current up to date MRI to see what condition the spine is in.

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