Archive for January, 2012

Swollen Belly Button

Jan 23 2012 Published by under S

Swollen Belly Button: In most cases of a swollen belly button the problem is actually a “belly button hernia” – or more correctly referred to as an “umbilical hernia”. This is kind of hernia of the abdomen occurring in the area of the umbilicus. Whenever this kind of hernia develops, intestines push thru the wall of the abdomen in back of the belly button causing a bulge to advance. Numerous belly button hernias are hereditary and are particularly common in boys of African heritage. This kind of hernia may also develop in adults.

The region of the navel is prone to herniation especially in infants due to the way in which the body grows and because of the umbilicus nature. In certain cases, the wall of the abdominal area in back of navel does not completely close during development of the fetus, which allows for intestines to come thru, creating a hernia. Belly button hernias may be seen only when a baby strains or cries, descending back into the abdomen after the baby relaxes. It is normally identified fairly soon after birth, since newborns tend to strongly object to entering a new world, making their belly button hernias very noticeable.

Unlike other types of hernia, the belly button hernia normally will resolve itself. In babies, the hernia normally disappears by the age of one and certainly by the age of 4 in the majority of cases. If it continues to be existent after that time, it might require surgery for correction. This hernia is also predisposed to difficulties such as strangling, where the supply of blood to the intestines that are herniated is cut off causing death of the tissue. If a baby has a belly button hernia, a physician might recommend monitoring it closely for any signs of early problems.

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Mucoid Sputum

Jan 19 2012 Published by under M

Mucoid Sputum has a white and dense consistency. Compared to usual sputum, this is a bit thicker and stickier partially because of an increased mucus production combined with pus. This is suggestive of a non-infectious airway disease (e.g. chronic bronchitis, asthma) or may also indicate an infection at its earliest stages like in early lobar pneumonia. Lung tumors and TB infection are also related most frequently with persistent production of mucoid sputum.

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Gastric Antrum

Jan 16 2012 Published by under G

Gastric Antrum: Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia or GAVE is a rare origin of gastrointestinal bleeding that is chronic as well as anemia from the loss of blood. This condition is associated with small blood vessels dilating in the gastric antrum. The dilated vessels cause intestinal bleeding. It is likewise referred to as “watermelon stomach” because of long streaky areas of red in the stomach that many believe look like the markings on watermelon.

This condition involving the last portion of the stomach which is known as the “gastric antrum”, was first written about in 1952, and reported in medical literature in 1953. As of 2011, the pathogenesis and etiology are still unknown; however, there are several opposing hypotheses as to several etiologies.

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Swollen Forehead

Jan 15 2012 Published by under S

Swollen Forehead: What causes the forehead to swell? When bumps appear on the forehead as well as swelling is explainable in most cases – but what causes the entire forehead to turn red or to swell is another question all together. Actually there are a number of items that can cause a forehead to swell. Often, the process of elimination may help an individual figure out what is causing it.

If an individual wears a hat, then it possibly could be contact dermatitis caused by a reaction of the body to any irritant that may be found in the hat fabric. Most of the time, this irritant is found in the lining of the hat or cap. When this irritant mixes with sweat and humidity that hats can often produce on the head – it can create an allergic reaction.

If that could be the reason, then take the liner out of the hat for a few days to see what happens with the swollen forehead, then stop wearing the hat totally and see if it clears up then. If it doesn’t, thru the process of elimination, it could be another problem.

The forehead could swell due to sunburn. If the individual spends lots of time out in the sun, then it could be a burn that has cause the redness and swelling of the forehead. Hydrocortisone shots, and Chlorpheniramine Maleate both available from your physician might be effective in treating this situation. It also could be helped by upping the dose of any sunscreen that is used on the forehead or re-apply several times during the day.

Inflamed sinuses or even a migraine may sometimes make the forehead appear swollen. This is another situation that should be discussed with your physician to see if there any medication options that can reduce swelling in these situations. A swollen forehead with pain in the cheeks and around the eyes can be an indication of a sinus infection.

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Decubitus Angina

Jan 13 2012 Published by under D

Decubitus Angina: Angina – or angina pectoris – is chest pain that is temporary or the sensation of pressure occurring while the heart muscle is not getting enough oxygen.

Decubitus angina is simply angina that happens when the individual is in the reclining position or lying down – not only at night – without any cause being apparent. Angina decubitus happens due to gravity redistributing the fluids of the body. This redistribution will make the heart work harder.

Commonly an individual feels angina as an ache or pressure beneath the breastbone or sternum. Individuals often think this sensation is heaviness or discomfort rather than pain. This discomfort might also occur in either arm down the inside, in either shoulder, thru the back and in the jaw, throat or teeth.

In women, the symptoms are often different. Women are most likely to have a sensation of burning or tenderness in the shoulders, jaw, back, or arms.

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Biliary Dyskinesia

Jan 13 2012 Published by under B

Biliary Dyskinesia: Normally the gallbladder is triggered to contract and push bile into the duct of the bile, by many factors, most of the time food. Usually, in between eating, the gallbladder will gradually fill with bile and after eating, contracts in order to empty the contents. If the gallbladder does not work properly and therefore does not empty the bile, pain may develop. This contraction that is abnormal might cause no symptoms but in some individuals it can cause some vague cramping in the area of the upper abdomen. Some individuals might have sharp pains that are episodic under the right rib cage. Normally, food causes the symptoms. This word “Dyskinesia” is used for this diagnosis and has a literal meaning for “abnormal motion”.

The indications of this disorder can be the same symptoms of many illnesses such as gallstones and other stomach problems. So, testing is needed to rule out other disorders as well as help to confirm dyskinesia. A routine ultrasound of the abdominal area is used to rule out gallstones. Often, upper endoscopy of the stomach is also done. Routine blood tests are helpful also. Usually all these tests will be normal. No gallstones, polyps or sludge are seen in the gallbladder on the ultrasound. Then the next test involves nuclear medicine with a test which measures the gallbladder’s bile uptake and the gallbladder’s capacity for contraction as well as to expel bile. Atypical nuclear test in an individual with a substantial history will point to the diagnosis.

A laparoscopic cholecystectomy to remove the gallbladder is the treatment for this disorder. Careful consultation with the surgeon is extremely vital before the surgery as the tests and history to diagnose this condition is not as ironclad as gallstones. Some individuals might not have a resolution of all their symptoms after the removal of the gallbladder.

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Radial Styloid Tenosynovitis

Jan 12 2012 Published by under R

Radial Styloid Tenosynovitis: This is an irritation of the tendons on the side of the thumb and the wrist and is quite painful. An individual with this disorder is very likely to feel pain or discomfort each time the wrist is turned, or every time anything is grasped.

Even though the exact cause of tenosynovitis is not known, any activity that involves repetitive hand or wrist movement can exacerbate this condition. These types of activity include: playing music, cooking, working in the garden, knitting or walking a pet.

The treatment for this condition might range from immobilizing the wrist and taking drugs to surgery in the cases that are most serious. If treatment is begun early, the symptoms generally will improve within 4 to 6 weeks.

If the condition goes very long with no treatment, the pain can spread back into the forearm, farther into the thumb or both. Grasping, pinching and other movements of the thumb and wrist exacerbate the pain.

Symptoms of this disorder consist of: swelling close to the thumb base; pain close to the thumb base; fluid-filled cyst in the region of the pain and swelling; squeaking sound as the tendons attempt to move back and forth thru the inflamed sheaths; and problems moving the wrist or thumb when performing activities that involve grasping and pinching.

When griping, grasping, clenching, pinching or wring anything in the hands two main tendons of the lower thumb and wrist are used. These track side by side starting at the forearm to the wrist on the thumb side. Ordinarily they slide unimpeded thru the tiny tunnel that unites them to the thumb base. With this disorder, the slippery covering of the tendons develops inflammation and this restricts the tendons movements.

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Acetabular Retroversion

Jan 11 2012 Published by under A

Acetabular Retroversion: While well documented in the literature as an orthopedic problem and as a reason for hip pain that is chronic, this kind of retroversion has not precisely been written about in the radiologic literature so it is often overlooked during hip x-rays. This is a problem that is caused by a specific type of dysplasia of the hip that is categorized by “posterolateral orientation” of the acetabulum that is atypical. This pathology can affect the patient to successive front impingement of the neck of the femur up on the front acetabular margin as well as the labrum fibrous. With no treatment, these cases can advance to damage of the front cartilage and labrum with the ensuing start early of osteoarthritic disease. This type of symptom has been designated as emerging in remoteness as a single problem or as part of an intricate hip dysplasia.

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Defecation Reflex

Jan 10 2012 Published by under D

Defecation Reflex: Any reaction of the large bowels that stimuli various functions and that are involuntary is referred to as the defecation reflex. These are reflexes that are controlled by the autonomic nervous structure and they play a vital part in the process of defecation along with the somatic reflex located in the wall and which is the controlled portion of this function. The 2 major reflexes for defecation are the “parasympathetic defecation reflex” and the “intrinsic myenteric defection reflex”.

When the feces enter the rectum this causes expansion of the wall of the rectal area. This stretching stimulates indicators to the sigmoid and descending colons thru the network of nerves to intensify peristalsis. This nerve network is a portion of the nervous system that is known as enteric and is the gut’s internal network of reflexes.

The peristaltic contractions extend to the anus and rectum. Fecal material is motivated ever so closely to the anus as needed. When these contractions arrive at the anus, there it triggers the anal sphincter that is internal and that is always straitened, to relax itself. It happens by signals that are inhibitory thru the “myenteric plexus” to decrease constriction to the sphincter.

Defecation can happen at this time when there is relaxation of the anal sphincter externally. But, with no “parasympathetic defecation reflex”, a bowel movement is reliant solely on the reflex that is intrinsic and is extremely weak.

The “parasympathetic defecation reflex” and the “intrinsic myenteric defecation reflex” function identically but the latte includes fibers of nerves denoted as parasympathetic in the total nerves of the pelvic. This can trigger peristaltic motion in the sigmoid and descending colon and the rectal area. It as well causes the external sphincter to relax. The dissimilarity is that the “parasympathetic defecation reflex” increases this procedure and makes this reflex that is intrinsic have more power. If stimulated sufficiently, it can even stimulate the sigmoid colon to totally vacant all material in the rectum quickly.

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Ileocecal Resection

Jan 09 2012 Published by under I

Ileocecal Resection: The primary indication for ileocecal resection can be the presence of inflammatory bowel diseases, hemorrhage within the gastrointestinal tract, tumors, masses and adenoma of the appendix. This is performed specifically because the previously mentioned conditions cannot be resected endoscopically.

However, before this surgical operation is done, the surgeon and his team must be well acquainted with the anatomy of the cecum and the rest of the digestive system. This is imperative so as to avoid further complications after the surgery. Patients who are subjected to this procedure must be carefully screened because those who are too unstable to undergo exploratory laparotomy are basically not qualified for ileocecal resection.

Before performing this procedure, some preparations must be done first. The patient must first submit himself for certain lab workups such as a complete blood count (CBC) and as well as certain blood chemistries. Anticoagulant and anti-platelet medications must also be stopped ideally from within 7 to days prior the day of surgery.

Typically, ileocecal resection is done under general anesthesia. However, there are those who proposed that the rate of succeeding is much higher when it is performed under spinal anesthesia. During the day of surgery, the patient is prepped for the procedure. The surgeon would then decide for the type of incision to be made. The incision would usually depend on the accessibility of the abdomen. Different incisions can also be made. It could be supraumbilical transverse incision, median or paramedian. The terminal ileum and cecum would be resected. After which, an ileo-ascending colostomy is then created.

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