Archive for December, 2011


Dec 22 2011 Published by under E

Extubated: The basic definition for this word is the removal of any tube from a structure, orifice or organ; specially, the tube removal after intubation of the trachea or larynx.

Primary as well as secondary responses to extubation are often possible. The primary effects can include systemic as well as local responses. The similar responses that follow intubation can be seen at extubation. Through intubation the individual is more secure due to anesthesia stimulation than there is during extubation therefore the responses cardiovascularly might be even more exaggerated. The more serious complication following extubation is the occurrence of airway obstruction that is acute. Central nervous respiratory depression, decrease in consciousness, decrease in the tone of muscles as well as tone obstruction can lead to expiratory or inspiratory stridor, cyanosis, dyspnea, tachycardia, agitation, hypertension as well as sweating.

Changes hemodynamically including approximately a 20 percent increase in heart rate as well as blood pressure usually occur in most individuals while taking the tube out. Patients with pregnancy-induce hypertension, cardiac disease and increased pressure intracranially can be risk for problems and can cause life-threatening episodes of ischemic myocardial. Management involves pharmacologic therapy or deep extubation.

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Alveolar Ventilation Rate

Dec 21 2011 Published by under A

Alveolar Ventilation Rate: This is fundamentally the volume of new air from the atmosphere that enters the alveoli. Because there will always be some capacity of air that occupies “dead space” through the respiratory system, 100 percent of new air that is inhaled won’t arrive in the alveoli. Using the following formula the rate of ventilation for the alveolar can be determined. Simply deduct the physical “dead space” from the “tidal volume”. The ensuing figure is then multiplied by the rate of breathing and this equals the “alveolar ventilation rate”.

For instance, if the physical dead space equals 150 mL, and the tidal volume equals 500 mL, the subtraction will equal 350 mL and then multiplied by the rate of breathing of 12 breaths per minute. The result gives an alveolar ventilation rate of 42000 mL per minute.

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Mucopurulent Sputum

Dec 21 2011 Published by under M

Mucopurulent Sputum: Sputum is simply mucus coughed up from the airways that are lower and it is typically used for investigation microbiologically of infections of the respiratory system.

The better sputum cultures have little saliva as this can contaminate the culture with oral bacteria. This incident is evaluated by the clinical microbiologist by inspecting a Gram stain of the sputum. If there are more than 25 cells that are squamous epithelial at low enlargement is a sign of contamination of the sample.

Mucopurulent sputum is a yellow-greenish color sample that suggests treatment with antibiotics might reduce symptoms. Green color is caused by Neutrophi Myelperoxidase.

Mucopurulent sputum is thicker and often stickier than normal sputum. This is due partly to the greater production of mucus that is coupled with pus in the purulent types.

Mucopurulent sputum is a sign of respiratory tract infection, predominantly of the lungs and bronchi – pneumonia or acute bronchitis.

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Ventral Tongue

Dec 19 2011 Published by under V

The Ventral Tongue is a vital area of the mouth. The ventral tongue is a risk area that is very high for carcinoma squamous cell development, especially in those individuals who smoke and others who drink large quantities of alcohol. The ventral tongue is the underside of the tongue which forms a V like structure.

Oral health is much more than just teeth that are dazzling making for a bright smile. Individuals should practice thorough and frequent inspections of the mouth and all the inner linings, including the ventral tongue or underside of the tongue – to make certain no medical problems are hiding somewhere. Although normally no reason for concern, white bumps on the tongue or mouth floor can be indications of conditions that are serious.

Lesions of the skin on the tongue’s underside or the ventral surface may be symptoms of mild oral disorders that are insignificant or they can denote very serious, conditions that are cancerous. Most tongue bumps usually clear up on their own within 7 days. If that does not happen, the individual needs to consult with the dentist or medical professional to have them biopsied.

Skin cancer that is oral is the ultimate problem that is associated with any lesion of the top or ventral area of the tongue. An individual’s odds of having this type disease are significantly higher if a person smokes cigarettes or cigars, use tobacco products that are smokeless or drink alcohol. But, according to some dentists one-fourth of individuals established with oral cancers are not in these risk groups that are high. In fact, some dentists feel that the tongue is a common site for cancer.

Although many problems can cause lesions that are oral and white, only a few cause bumps on the ventral surface and these are: apthous and leukoplakia ulcers, and oral candidiasis. White bumps on the bottom of the tongue – the ventral tongue – can also have significant life-threatening changes in the mouth cells. Early detection and treatment are critical to the prevention of oral cancers that are dangerous.

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Postprandial Emesis

Dec 17 2011 Published by under P

Postprandial Emesis: Postprandial pertains to after eating meal while emesis pertains to forceful and involuntary emptying of the stomach which is also referred to as vomiting. Postprandial emesis is then defined as after meal vomiting which is a type of eating disorder. Although not a disease, it can be a vital manifestation or symptom of an aberration in health condition. It is often preceded by nausea which is described as unpleasant sensation that may lead to vomiting although nausea may not always lead to vomiting. This may be alarming if postprandial emesis frequently occur as this may lead to dehydration, metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia.

Vomiting happens uncontrollably and without signs and symptoms. Many factors contribute to the cause of postprandial emesis, from simple to serious causes. Simple causes may include motion sickness, indigestion and emotional stress to name a few. Improper eating habits also contribute such as over eating or too much consumption of food and beverage especially of carbonated beverages. Postprandial emesis may also be due to reaction to food intake like allergic reaction to a certain substance in the food ingredient. Food poisoning also count for the factor causing postprandial emesis as this is the normal reaction of the body from an ingested contaminated food. Serious cause may include blockage in the intestine, stomach flu and other dysfunctional condition in the body. Consumption of too much alcohol also contributes to postprandial emesis cause. Postprandial emesis in pregnant women is most often common due to morning sickness. Prevention of emesis after meal is prescribed as there is no treatment for emesis. However, a doctor should be consulted if vomiting comes with blood or coffee ground like appearance. It should also be alarming if vomiting after meal comes with lethargy and confusion and coupled with difficulty in breathing and rapid pulse rate as this may indicate a very serious condition. Although vomiting after meal cannot be treated, it can be relieved with some measure such as drinking ice cold water, eating saltine crackers, non-activity after meal and also avoid overeating and avoid taking too much alcohol.

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Ear Cartilage Infection

Dec 15 2011 Published by under E

Ear Cartilage Infection is commonly referred to as Perichondritis and is an infection of the tissue and skin that is covering any cartilage of the outer ear for protection.

Cartilage is tissue that is thick and forms the shapes of the nose and the outer ear. Cartilage has this very thin tissue layer over it and is referred to as the perichondrium. This layer of covering aids in providing nutrients to the cartilage.

The more common bacterium that causes this type problem is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. An infection to this tissue layer is normally caused by an outer ear injury due to ear piercing particularly of the cartilage, ear surgery or sports with lots of contact. The most significant risk is the piercing of the ear thru the cartilage. Also burns, surgery as well as acupuncture all can increase the risk of this infection.

This is why it is always advisable to have the ear lobes pierced instead of the other areas of the ear.

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Intrahepatic Bile Duct

Dec 13 2011 Published by under I

Intrahepatic Bile Duct: These bile ducts are a part of the system designed for the exocrine bile outflow from the liver. They are separated into small and large ducts. For instance the large ducts or right and left hepatic ducts and the small ducts are the ‘interlobular bile ducts’.

On the other hand, they can also refer to the ducts found among the ‘interlobular bile ducts’ as well as the left and right hepatic ducts. The tissues of these ducts are described as simple columnar epithelium with connective tissue that is dense fibroelastic.

Cancers may develop in many parts of the bile duct. Based on their location they are divided into 3 groups: intrahepatic, distal and perihilar bile duct cancers. The cancers in these areas are different and may have different symptoms.

Cancers of these ducts develops in the smallest of bile duct branches in the liver. Often they are confused with cancers that begin in the liver cells that are called ‘hepatocellular carcinomas’ and are often treated the exact same way. Only approximately 1 out of every 10 cases of bile duct cancer is intrahepatic.

The majority of bile duct cancers are of the type known as adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinomas are those cancers of the glandular cells developing in numerous other organs of the body. Adenocarcinomas of the bile duct grow from mucus glands lining the inside of these ducts. Alternative name for bile duct adenocarcinoma is cholangiocarcinoma. Not all of the tumors in the bile duct are cancerous.

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Conjunctival Injection

Dec 13 2011 Published by under C

Conjunctival Injection is symptoms of redness in the white sclera of the eye. It is a sign of inflammation of the conjunctive and also can represent inflammation in the eye. It may be an indication of an abrasion of the cornea of the clear area of the eye. It is vital to decide if the vision has been affected with Conjunctival injection.

Conjunctival injection might denote conjunctivitis, inflammation of the lining of the outside of the eye inside the eyelid. Conjunctivitis might be a virus – commonly “pink eye” – or bacterial infection.

Conjunctival injection needs to be examined by a physician.

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Vesicular Rash

Dec 13 2011 Published by under V

Vesicular rashes are bubbles or blisters that develop on the skin due to a viral infection. It develops on almost any areas of the skin of the body. This rash may also develop on skin areas that have mucous membrane present.

The term of “vesicular” is derived from the Latin word “vesiculum” that means “small bag”. Vesicular rash got its name from the appearance of sacs or vesicles on the body.

Vesicular rash may develop on any region of the skin. Vesicular rash can be seen on the legs, hands as well as the face. There are certain cases of Vesicular rash where the mouth is affected as well, due to the fact that in the mouth there is mucous membrane. The lining of the mouth or Buccal Mucosa is affected in these circumstances. In these rashes the area of the trunk is full of red blisters.

The disease is marked by the appearance of small rashes all over the body. The rashes are very itchy. If scratched, they may create scars on the skin. The rashes are seen as sacs elevated on the skin. This elevation is because of the fact that they are full of serous fluids.

Vesicular rashes that are caused by Herpes Zoster are linked with headache in individuals.

If the patient is suffering from Dermatophytid, there can also be fever along with the Vesicular rash. Dermatophytid is a reaction that is allergic to fungal infection. Vesicular rash and fever is common in patients with Dermatophytid.

In rashes caused by Herpes Zoster, individuals also have a physical discomfort that could involve depression.

The rashes are also very painful in some cases. The pain stays until the rashes completely go away.

In many cases, the rashes might change color and become darkened or even cloudy in appearance. This occurs in advance stages when the sacs are filled with blood. In the later stages, scales or crusts form over the vesicles. These ultimately fall off after a while and the skin will start to heal from that point on.

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Ventral Striatum

Dec 12 2011 Published by under V

Ventral Striatum: This area is a fairly small one that is inserted deep in the brain close to the basal ganglia. Until just recently, there has not been much known about the ventral striatum. But recently it has been associated with decision, risk and reward. It is important in what we identify as rewarding – such as status and keeping up with the Joneses – and just how rewarding something is. It has been associated with pathological gambling, and it also matters when you are thinking about what to do next with your portfolio.

This ventral striatum consists of 2 parts, the olfactory tubercle and the nucleus accumbens. Its most vital neurotransmitter is dopamine. Dopamine is linked with pleasure and motor functions. The ventral striatum is thoroughly associated with the limbic system that involves motivation and emotion: receiving input from it and sending output to it, mostly associated with restrain, or checking impulse. It is thought that this ventral striatum aids in suppressing certain actions in the limbic system, selecting the ones that are appropriate and silencing the others

When everything is considered, it is a natural selection for the reward center or area of the brain and this indeed seems to be its function. Numerous studies that looked at different types of rewards showed this area totally lighting up. For example anticipating financial gain will increase dopamine in the ventral striatum and increases pleasure. Thoughts about loss decreases dopamine. It was discovered that the majority of individuals are most sensitive to dopamine decreases than increases, and this is where risk aversion comes from. It tells the limbic system what behavior being considered is risky or that the loss just occurred is not a good thing and the limbic system tells the conscious mind to feel bad about what just happened, affecting your decision-making.

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