Archive for December, 2011

Neurogenic Inflammation

Dec 31 2011 Published by under N

Neurogenic Inflammation: This is an inflammation rising from the release locally from afferent neurons of mediators of inflammatory such as substance P as well as calcitonin gene-lasted peptide or CGRP.

This is a process appearing to play a role that is important in the pathogenesis of frequent disease such as psoriasis, fibromyalgia, asthma, eczema, dystonia rosacea migraine and multiple sensitivity to chemicals.

In migraine, the stimulation of the trigeminal nerve triggers neurogenic inflammation via the release of neuropeptides such as substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neurokinin A, nitric oxide 5-ht, and CGRP which leads to a “sterile neurogenic inflammation”.

The treatment for migraine with blockers of CGRP is showing promise. In trials, the 1st oral non-peptide CGRP antagonist, MK-0974 or Telcagepant was showing operational effectiveness in the management of migraine attacks but liver enzymes elevated in 2 subjects were found. Other links and other therapy in the neurogenic pathway for inflammation for disease interruption are under study including migraine therapies.

Botulinum toxin has been showing some effect on inhibiting “neurogenic inflammation” as well as indications that suggest the character of inflammation neurogenically in psoriasis pathogenesis. The University of Minnesota has started follow up trial to observe patients treated with botulinum toxin for dystonia has improvements that are dramatic in psoriasis.

Astelin or Azelastine is indicated for treatment symptomatically of rhinitis that is vasomotor including nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, as well as post nasal drip in children 12 years of age and older as well as adults.

Statins can be useful for treating these diseases that have predominant neurogenic inflammation.

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Posterior Capsular Opacification

Dec 31 2011 Published by under P

Posterior Capsular Opacification: This is the occurrence of a membrane that is hazy (capsule) right behind the intraocular lens implant. This disorder is often denoted as “secondary cataract”, although this term is a misnomer since when a cataract is removed it will not develop again.

Ophthalmologists usually prefer, during cataract surgery, to position the “intraocular lens implant” in the identical anatomical place that the lens that was natural – cataract – has within the capsular bag. The lens that is natural of the eye is held within a membrane that is thin and is known as a capsule. When the cataract in an adult is removed, the ophthalmologist makes every effort to uphold the veracity of that capsule, because the lens implant will be placed in it. The part of the capsule that is anterior will be opened in order to take out the cataract but the side that is posterior of the capsule is kept intact in order to offer the lens support and to stop vitreous humor from inflowing to the front or anterior eye chamber. After surgery about 20 percent of individual patients with posterior capsules intact will develop cloudiness of the capsule recognized as “posterior capsule opacity” that results in vision that is blurry. In fact often it can be worse than the haziness was prior to cataract surgery.

But luckily, by means of the YAG laser, the management of “posterior capsule opacity” is effective, safe, and painless and may often be performed as an in-office process. In this process, referred to as “YAG laser capsulotomy”, this hazy posterior capsule is removed from the visual axis or line of sight – using the advantages of this laser. This lets the surgery be completed with no incision or “touching” of the eye. The individual patient needs to be cooperative and those patients who are very uncooperative, such as mentally retarded or children patients – might need sedation for this process or the posterior capsule can during a second surgical operation be opened while the patient is under general anesthesia.

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Gastrovascular Cavity

Dec 31 2011 Published by under G

Gastrovascular Cavity: As the name implies, this has a role in both the distribution of particles and nutrients to all areas of the body as well as having a role in digestion. Organisms that belong to 2 main phyla – the Platyhelminthes and the Cnidaria – have gastrovascular cavities. The cnidarians that are symmetrical have a body that is sac-like in 2 layers that are distinct – the epidermis and gastrodermis – with a jelly type layer called the mesoglea in between. Digestion that is extra cellular begins within the center cavity of the body that is sac-like. This cavity or hollow has only 1 means leading outside and in the majority of cnidarians that opening is surrounded by tentacles that serve to seize prey. An example is the digestion in hydra happens in the gastrovascular cavity.

Those organisms having a gastrovascular cavity include: jellyfish, sea anemones, corals, sea pen and flatworms.

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Jaw Claudication

Dec 30 2011 Published by under J

Jaw Claudication: This is pain that is experienced while manipulating the jaw or while chewing. It is a symptom of a disease and individuals who experience this should get in touch with their primary care physician for diagnosis and treatment. If this pain has an onset that is quite sudden and does not resolve, then emergency pain management is available to make individuals feel more comfortable. This may be provided at an emergency or clinic setting.

With this disorder, when an individual chews or moves the jaw in movements that are wide, then pain may spike along the face and jaw. One possible cause is impingement of the nerve, where a facial nerve is trapped and transmits pain signals anytime the jaw does move because of nerve pressure. Normally, the source of the pain is “giant cell arteritis” which is inflammation of the vessels of the blood system. Once these vessels are providing blood to the jaw, individuals can feel the jaw pain because the muscles are not receiving enough blood.

When a physician does the workup for jaw claudication, the patients will need to give a total history about the pain, in order to gather more precise facts about the situations when it develops. A physical exam will be done and the physician might ask the individual patient to move the jaw as well as to mimic chewing. Imaging studies may be used to examine any problems structural with the jaw as well as other medical tests can be considered – dependent on the physician’s suspicions about the pains cause.

Having jaw pain may be very distressing, making eating a pain and not a pleasure and can also potentially contribute to weight loss because of appetite that is suppressed. The pain may also be linked with headaches as well as pain surrounding the eyes, dependent on the origins of the problem. Obtaining treatment can resolve the pain or provide the patients with tools for pain management. This is the reason that these patients should not delay or avoid treatment.

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Exogenous Obesity

Dec 28 2011 Published by under E

Exogenous Obesity is a form of obesity that results from the excessive consumption of food. It is caused by a constant intake of food that goes well beyond what the body requires for use as sources of chemical energy, leading to the storage of any unnecessary amount of energy derived from digested food particles as fat. This type of obesity is set apart from the other forms due to the fact that it is brought about by the person’s conscious and voluntary decisions rather than as a result of an underlying physical imbalance in the body.

Exogenous obesity is roughly the result of constant overeating despite the lack of the need for or usage of the extra energy in the form of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. It especially tends to be caused by a disproportion between the level of physical activity an individual engages in and the amount of food he or she consumes. The condition is not attributed to hunger or to any digestive factor, instead, it is often more linked to emotional or situational triggers such as boredom, depression, or stress that prompt an individual to resort to eating in order to compensate for certain circumstances or attain some level of comfort.

Although initially harmless or even unintentional, exogenous obesity can bring about a host of possible health complications. Excessively increased weight can lead to arthritic problems due to the increased amount of pressure applied onto bones and joints, while the accumulation of fat may obstruct blood vessels and result in cardiovascular disease.

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Nucleoplasm Function

Dec 27 2011 Published by under Uncategorized

Nucleoplasm Function: Nucleoplasm which is also referred to as karyoplasm or nuclear sap is fluid normally established in the nucleus of cells called eukaryotic. This fluid consists of mainly water, complex mixture of molecules, as well as dissolved ions. Its main function is to serve as a medium of suspension for the organelles of the nucleus. Additional functions include maintaining nuclear structure and shape as well as the transport of ions, molecules and additional substances that are vital to cell metabolism and functioning.

There are numerous kinds of plasma held within a eukaryotic cell. The protoplasm is the total of the contents of the cell’s including nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Cytoplasm consists of all fluids of the cell as well as organelles located in the cell membrane or wall but is located outside the nucleus. Cytosol is a fluid comparable to nucleoplasm both in composition and function and is the chief part of cytoplasm, comprising approximately seventy % of the cell’s complete volume. A nuclear membrane surrounding the cell’s nucleus split up the fluid of nucleoplasmic from the cytoplasm in the rest of the cell.

The viscous nucelplasmic fluid protects and suspends the nucleolus. This organelle is made up of nucleic acids and proteins. It has responsibility for the assembly and transcription of rRMA, which is a type of RNA which works with the messenger RNA or mRNA and transfers RNA tRNA to transform amino acids to proteins.

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Tenacious Sputum

Dec 26 2011 Published by under T

Tenacious Sputum: This is sputum that is thick and colorless. Some of the probable causes of this common medical condition can include: bronchitis and asthma. Either one of these conditions could potentially be dangerous or even fatal if left undiagnosed and untreated.

A cough that is persistent with tenacious sputum may cause anorexia, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, fracture of a rib, musculo-skeletal pain, and exhaustion or cough syncope. If the sputum is infected and green, antibiotics as well as a sputum culture can be indicated. An antibiotic that is broad spectrum may be started while waiting for the results of the culture from the lab.

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Biliary Ductal Dilatation

Dec 26 2011 Published by under B

Biliary Ductal Dilatation: The ducts of the bile from the gallbladder and liver join together to from a common bile duct. This drains into the small bowel and bile is delivered to this point of the small bowel known as the duodenum. Bile aids in the breakdown of food that is undigested. When there is a blockage occurring in the bile duct, these bile ducts turn out to be enlarged and this is referred to as dilated.

Obstruction or dilatation of the bile duct may happen for many reasons as well as always deserves further examination. Common causes consist of gallstones that get disturbed and dislodged from the gallbladder and journeys thru the bile duct to the area where it empties into the duodenum. This is the slimmest portion of the bile duct and often can get impacted or blocked by gallstones at this position. This zone is likewise the area at where the pancreas is drained into the duodenum.

Most individuals with bile ducts dilatation will need an ERCP or “endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatiogram”. This is a test done usually as a process during the day with no hospital stay and is done under sedation that is heavy. It involves injecting dye that goes from the small bowel into the bile duct. During the test, tumors can be biopsied, stones can be removed from the bile duct, and the obstruction can be relieved. Also, an MRCP which is an MRI scan of these bile ducts may further define the reason for these bile ducts to become dilated but is of only diagnostic value. A bile duct that is only slightly dilated can be seen in an individual who have had a previous cholecystectomy and does not need any further investigation. Most other cases of bile ducts dilatation will need referral to a gastroenterologist who concentrates in the technique of ERCP.

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Antrum

Dec 24 2011 Published by under A

Antrum: In biology this is a general term for a chamber or cavity that can have meaning that is specific when referenced to certain sites in the body or organs.

In vertebrates for example it can mean: antrum cardiacum – which is a dilation occurring in the esophagus near the stomach; antrum follicularum is the hollow in the epithelium that encloses the oocyte; mastoid antrum, is a cavity in between the temporal bone in the skull and the middle ear; stomach antrum, the preliminary part of the pyloric portion of the stomach, this is what usually is referred to as the “antrum” in matters associated to the stomach; Antrum of the Highmore or maxillary antrum, is the maxillary sinus cavity in the maxilla and the largest of the paranasal sinuses.

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Pulse Lavage

Dec 22 2011 Published by under P

Pulse Lavage: Cleansing of a wound is a vital component of management of wounds needed to facilitate the healing process of the wound. There are many methods available for the cleansing of a wound. Research has examined the properties of pulse lavage in cleansing of wounds and compared this method with methods that are more traditional.

Pulse lavage is defined as delivering of a solution for irrigating under pressure – pressure can be produced by some device powered by electricity. Irrigation that uses pressure may be delivered simultaneously with suction, removing the irrigating solution from the area. In wound cleansing, this method removes infectious agents as well as any debris from a wound’s surface.

In the 1960’s apprehensions had been high concerning potential hazards that were related with using “high-pressure” pulse lavage in wound cleansing. Some researchers had examined the possible risks including the development of bacteremia following lavage of wounds that were contaminated, wound traumatization as well as distribution of certain matter or bacteria thru the wound to the surrounding tissues. These studies began with using oral irrigation devices such as Water-Piks. The analysis of samples of blood provided no indication that those in the control group developed infections after exposure to high-pressure oral irrigation.

The results suggested that the amount of pressure that is used in irrigation is the main variable to achieving effective cleansing of the wound. Pressures of 1 psi or less were found to be of little value for wound cleansing. Debris on the surface, such as wound exudate and loose necrotic tissue was shown to be most effectively cleaned with pressures between five and 10 psi.

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